As with most European royal families, the Vasas were totally dysfunctional.Here we have a sad case of an ingrate and malcontent penile envier who showed great propensity for hubris, cruelty and disloyalty. Your average European ruler then! ETA - I have been investigating Calvins v Lutherans as it came up in my new-to-me book 'Christina Queen of Sweden' by Veronica Buckley. What I gather is that Lutherans think of themselves individually interacting whilst Calvinists think of their social group interacting with their God. I can't see that that was enough reason to be so antagonistic to each other but then I don't get out much.